Bulk Provisioning

Bulk Provisioning

   KB 1382        Last updated on 07/11/2015  

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zmprov Command Files

The zmprov command will accept commands from a file (or stdin) as input. Create a text file ("commands.zmp" for example) with the zmprov subcommands each on a line.

createDomain domain.com
createAccount andy@domain.com password displayName 'Andy Anderson' givenName Andy sn Anderson
createAccount betty@domain.com password displayName 'Betty Brown' givenName Betty sn Brown

Then send the contents of the file to zmprov.

As zimbra:

 zmprov -f commands.zmp

As Root:

 cat commands.zmp | su - zimbra -c zmprov

Useful examples of bulk provisioning with zmprov

You'll probably want to avoid doing a bunch of direct zmprov commands in a bash script if you have a lot to add, since each zmprov command starts up a new jvm for each one. In other words you'll want to avoid doing thousands of these (unless you have plenty of time):

zmprov createDomain domain.com
zmprov  createAccount andy@domain.com password displayName 'Andy Anderson' givenName Andy sn Anderson
zmprov  createAccount betty@domain.com password displayName 'Betty Brown' givenName Betty sn Brown
.. .. ..
.. .. ..

As shown in the first section, you can create a list of subcommands to send to zmprov all at once, which will save time because it's only necessary to start a single jvm. Below are some ways to create a command file from your existing account data.

Create Accounts

Passwd File to Zmprov

Following is a perl script to take a passwd file and turn it into a zmprov command file for account provisioning.

# $Id: passwd2zmprov,v 1.2 2008/03/05 05:01:29 phil Exp $

=head1 NAME

passwd2zmprov - create zmprov commands from a passwd file


  usage: passwd2zmprov [options] [[passwd_file] ...] > commands.zmp
     -help   show a brief help message
     -man    show the full documentation

     -domain <domain>     [REQUIRED]
     -cosid <cos_id>      [default "Default COS"]
     -password <password> [default ""]

  Getting a COS id:
    zimbra$ zmprov gc <myCos> | grep ^zimbraId:

  Example converting CSV to zmprov commands:
    $ ./passwd2zmprov -domain example.moc /etc/passwd > commands.zmp

  Example provisioning ZCS accounts as 'zimbra' user:
    zimbra$ zmprov -f commands.zmp


Tool to create commands suitable for zmprov from a UNIX passwd file.
We don't use getpwent etc., because we are likely working on a copy
and not running as root.

See Also:


use strict;
use warnings;
use File::Basename qw(basename);
use Getopt::Long qw(GetOptions);
use Pod::Usage qw(pod2usage);

my $prog = basename($0);
my ( @err, %option );

GetOptions( \%option, 'help|?', 'man', 'domain=s', 'cosid=s', 'password=s' )
  or pod2usage( -verbose => 0 );

pod2usage( -verbose => 1 ) if $option{help};
pod2usage( -verbose => 2 ) if $option{man};

push( @err, "-domain <domain> is required" )
  unless $option{domain};

pod2usage( -verbose => 0, -message => map( "$prog: $_\n", @err ) )
  if @err;

warn("$prog: using Default COS\n") unless $option{cos_id};
warn("$prog: reading passwd like entries from STDIN\n") unless @ARGV;

my $date     = localtime;
my $cosid    = $option{cosid};
my $domain   = $option{domain};
my $password = defined $option{password} ? $option{password} : "";
my $MIN_UID = 500;      # skip system accounts like httpd
my $MAX_UID = 60000;    # skip other system accounts like nfsnobody

# sanitize password
$password =~ s/\"/\\\"/g;

while (<>) {
    next if /^\s*$/;    # skip empty lines

    my ( $uname, $x, $uid, $gid, $gecos, $dir, $shell ) = split( /:/, $_, 7 );

    if ( $uid < $MIN_UID or $uid > $MAX_UID ) {
        warn("$prog: skip $uname: $uid not between $MIN_UID and $MAX_UID\n");

    # assuming gecos format is First [[MI] [Last]], sanitize a little
    $gecos =~ s/\"/\\\"/g;

    my ( $fullname, $description ) = split( /\s*,\s*/, $gecos, 2 );
    my ( $fname, $mname, $lname ) = split( " ", $fullname, 3 );
    unless ( defined($lname) ) {
        $lname = $mname;
    my $displayname = $fname
      . ( defined($mname) ? " $mname" : "" )
      . ( defined($lname) ? " $lname" : "" );

        qq{ca "$uname\@$domain" "$password"},
        ( defined($cosid)       ? qq{ zimbraCOSid "$cosid"}       : () ),
        ( defined($fname)       ? qq{ givenName "$fname"}         : () ),
        ( defined($lname)       ? qq{ sn "$lname"}                : () ),
        ( defined($uname)       ? qq{ cn "$uname"}                : () ),
        ( defined($displayname) ? qq{ displayName "$displayname"} : () ),
        ( defined($description) ? qq{ description "$description"} : () ),
        qq{ zimbraNotes "Migrated $date"},
        qq{ zimbraPasswordMustChange TRUE},

=head1 HISTORY

 2007/01/23, Version 1.0/1.1 Dlbewley
 2008/03/04, Version 1.2 Plobbes


To execute:

 perl passwd2zmprov -domain example.moc < passwd > mydata.zmp

CSV File to zmprov

Following is a simple perl script to take a CSV file and turn it into the correct zmprov commands

# Lookup the valid COS (Class of Service) ID in the interface or like this
my $cosid = `su - zimbra -c 'zmprov gc Default |grep zimbraId:'`;
$cosid =~ s/zimbraId:\s*|\s*$//g;
while (<>) {
       # CHANGE ME: To the actual fields you use in your CSV file
       my ($email, $password, $first, $last) = split(/\,/, $_, 4);
       my ($uid, $domain) = split(/@/, $email, 2);
       print qq{ca $uid\@$domain $password\n};
       print qq{ma $uid\@$domain zimbraCOSid "$cosid"\n};
       print qq{ma $uid\@$domain givenName "$first"\n};
       print qq{ma $uid\@$domain sn "$last"\n};
       print qq{ma $uid\@$domain cn "$uid"\n};
       print qq{ma $uid\@$domain displayName "$first $last"\n};
       print qq{ma $uid\@$domain zimbraPasswordMustChange TRUE\n};
       print qq{\n};

The above is only a starting place, you will need to change other options (eg: the zimbraPasswordMustChange is an example only) and of course how you create and split the input data.

Also, some CSV files might contain quotes you want to remove.

MacOSX Server mail users

This script will remotely login to your existing MacOSX mail server and retrieve the users from /var/spool/imap/user. You will need an sudo/ssh account on boxes, don't forget to configure the variables at the top of the script

#This file is going to provision all the users for your new Zimbra Mail Server from MacOSX
#Written by Jordan Eunson - jordan@spidernetworks.ca

#Enter the top level domain for your email
$domain = "foo.bar.com";
#Enter the a sudo/SSH username for your existing mail server
$username1 = "username";
#Enter the IP/FQDN for your existing mail server
$hostname1 = "macosx.foo.bar.com";
#Enter the a sudo/SSH username for your new Zimbra server
$username2 = "username";
#Enter the IP/FQDN for your Zimbra server
$hostname2 = "zimbra.foo.bar.com";

use warnings;
use Tie::File;

system "clear";

print "This script is now going to connect to your existing mail server\n";
print "It will ask you for your sudo password twice\n";
print "If this step fails your probably have not configure the vars in this script\n";

system "ssh $username1\@$hostname1 sudo ls /var/spool/imap/user > userlist.txt";
system "cp userlist.txt imapuserlist.txt";

print "users retrieved:\n";
open FILE, "userlist.txt" or die $!;
while (<FILE>) { print $_; }
close (FILE); 


print "Are these all your users?[Y/N]";
$answer = <>;

if ($answer =~ /Y/ )
elsif ( $answer =~ /N/ ) 
		print "you must answer Yes or No!\n";
        goto confirmation; 
print "\n";
print "We are now ready to provision the users into your new Zimbra Server\n";
print "You will now be prompted thrice for your sudo password for your new Zimbra Server\n";

print "provisioning complete\n";

sub modtextfile() {
	tie my @file, "Tie::File", "userlist.txt";
	foreach my $line (@file)
	$line = "ca " . $line . "@" . $domain . ' ""';

sub provusers() {
	system `ssh $username2\@$hostname2 sudo cd; ssh $username2\@$hostname2 sudo /opt/zimbra/bin/zmprov < userlist.txt > useroutput.txt`;

LDAP Users to Zimbra Accounts

This script will generate zimbra accounts based on users found in your LDAP server. WARNING: EXISTING ACCOUNTS WILL BE DELETED FROM ZIMBRA, so use with care!


=head1 NAME

ldap2zm  - create zimbra accounts for LDAP users


usage: ldap2zm -h host -b 'base' [ options ]

  -h    LDAP hostname
  -b    LDAP search base

  -v    enable verbose output
  -u    username for LDAP bind
  -p    password for LDAP bind
  -f    LDAP search filter (default: '(objectclass=*)' )
  -l    list users found in LDAP search; take no other action
  -n    new domain (default to first found domain)


ldap2zm will create accounts in zimbra for every user it finds in the specified LDAP server.
Existing accounts are purged from zimbra at the start of each run, so DO NOT RUN THIS ON A 
PRODUCTION ZIMBRA SERVER!  Don't say I didn't warn you. :)

=head1 EXAMPLE

The following command would create zimbra accounts for all employees of example.com who are members of the 
'Zimbra Users' group on the hypothetical Active Directory server 'adserver', using the administrator's 

 ldap2zm -h adserver -u administrator -p s3cr3t -b "DC=example,DC=com" \ 
     -f '(memberOf=CN=Zimbra Users,OU=Employees,DC=example,DC=com)'

This one will also generate email as $user@example.com if email address is missing but it will extract all
regular user from AD (sAMAccountType may differ for you)
 ldap2zm -h adserver -u administrator -p s3cr3t -b "DC=example,DC=com" \ 
     -f "(sAMAccountType=805306368)" -n example.com

=head1 AUTHOR

  Greg Boyington <greg@automagick.us>
  adapted to Centos/AD by dominix <dominix at mail.pf>

=head1 SEE ALSO



use strict;
use Data::Dumper;
use Text::Password::Pronounceable;
use IPC::Open3;
use IO::Select;
use Net::LDAP;
use Getopt::Std;


use vars qw/$VERSION $VERBOSE %opt $zmprov_cmd $zmcontrol_cmd/;

# set up usage info
sub main::VERSION_MESSAGE { print $0.', version '.$main::VERSION."\n" }
sub main::HELP_MESSAGE    { print "For usage details please run:\n\tperldoc -F $0\n" }

# zimbra executables
$zmprov_cmd = '~zimbra/bin/zmprov';
$zmcontrol_cmd = '~zimbra/bin/zmmailboxdctl';

# ensure the 'zimbra' user is running the show
unless ( ( getpwuid( $< ) )[0] eq 'zimbra' ) {
        print "You must run this script as the 'zimbra' user.\n";
        exit 1;

# process command-line switches
$VERBOSE = $opt{v} ? 1 : 0;
die "You must specify your LDAP host with -h.\n"
        unless $opt{h};
die "You must specify your LDAP base with -b.\n"
        unless $opt{b};

unless ( $opt{f} ) {
        $opt{f} = q/(objectclass='*')/;
        warn qq/Warning: using default LDAP filter "$opt{f}"; override with -f.\n/;

unless ( $opt{n} ) {
    $opt{n}= `$zmprov_cmd gad|head -1`;

unless ($opt{v}) { print "using default domain = $opt{n}\n";}

# create the ldap object and bind to the LDAP server
my $ldap = Net::LDAP->new( $opt{h} ) or die $@;
my $msg = $ldap->bind( $opt{u} ? ( $opt{u}, password => $opt{p} ) : () );
$msg->code and die $msg->error;

# get a list of all users in the AD
print "Loading LDAP users...";
my %users = search( $ldap, base => $opt{b}, filter => $opt{f} );
print "OK.\n";

# no users? no work.
if ( ! %users ) {
        warn "No LDAP users found; aborting.\n";
        exit 1;

# pass every user to the gen_zmprov_command() routine to prepare the 
# user for a new zimbra account.  We also prepare the list of deleteAccount
# commands.
my @lines;
foreach ( sort keys %users ) {
        $users{ $_ } = gen_zmprov_command( user => $users{ $_ } );
        push @lines, "da '$users{ $_ }->{_address}'\n";

# List the users we found and bail, if the -l command-line switch is on.  We do this
# after the passing the results through gen_zmprov_command so we have the _address 
# to display.
if ( $opt{l} || $VERBOSE ) {
        print "The following users will be (re)created in zimbra:\n";
        printf '%-40s %s  %s'."\n", $users{ $_ }->{cn}[0], $users{ $_ }->{_address}, $users{ $_ }->{_password}
                foreach sort keys %users;
exit if $opt{l};

# Now we modify zimbra...

# deprovision existing accounts
print "Deleting existing accounts...";
print "OK.\n";

# restart mailboxd, to force the account cache to be cleared 
print "Restarting mailboxd...";
print `$zmcontrol_cmd restart`;

print "Pausing to allow server restart...";
sleep 3;
print "OK.\n";

# create new accounts
print "Creating new accounts...";
@lines = map { $users{ $_ }->{_cmd} } sort keys %users;
print "OK.\nRecreated " . scalar( keys %users ) . " accounts.\n";

# all done!


# search( %param_hash )
# Execute an LDAP search and return the results as a hash.
# Any args to Net::LDAP::search() may be passed as part of %param_hash; 
# if it exists, the 'index_attr' param specifies which LDAP attribute to 
# use as the key for the resulting %users hash.
sub search {
        my $ldap = shift;
        my %args = @_;

        my $index_attr = delete $args{index_attr} || 'samaccountname';

        # establish some defaults
        $args{attrs}    ||= [ 'cn', 'userPrincipalName', 'memberOf', 'givenName', 'sn', 'sAMAccountName' ];
        $args{scope}    ||= 'sub';

        # do the search
        my $result = $ldap->search( %args );

        my %users;

        # rejigger the results into a useful format
        my $href = $result->as_struct;
        foreach my $valref ( values %$href ) {
                my $this;
                foreach my $attr ( sort keys %$valref ) {
                        next if $attr =~ /;binary$/; # ignore any binary data
                        $this->{ lc $attr } = $valref->{ $attr };

                # add this user to the users hash
                $users{ $this->{ lc $index_attr }[0] } = $this;

        return %users;

# gen_zmprov_command( user => $hashref )
# Determine the email address of the zimbra account to 
# create for the given LDAP user, and generate a createAccount
# command for zmprov.  These are added to the hashref as _address
# and _cmd, respectively, and the whole thing is returned.
sub gen_zmprov_command {
        my %args = @_;
        my $user = delete $args{user};

        # we authenticate against AD, so the local zimbra password is irrelevant; 
        # we'll generate difficult passwords just to be on the safe side.
        #$user->{_password} = mkpasswd( -length => 12 );
        $user->{_password} = Text::Password::Pronounceable->generate(6, 10);

        # our AD server manages internal.example.com, but we want email addresses
        # to be in the example.com domain, so we fix up the address here.  Your 
        # setup (and AD schema) may vary.
        my $address = $user->{userprincipalname}[0] ? $user->{userprincipalname}[0] : "$user->{cn}[0]\@$opt{n}" ;
        $address =~ s/internal\.//;

        $user->{_address} = $address;

        # build the createAccount command to be sent to zmprov.
        $user->{_cmd} = qq(createAccount '$address' ) . 
                                          qq('$user->{_password}' ) . 
                                          qq(displayName '$user->{cn}[0]' ) . 
                                          qq(givenName '$user->{givenname}[0]' ) . 
                                          qq(sn '$user->{sn}[0]'\n);

        # return the modified hashref
        return $user;

# zmprov( @commands )
# execute zmprov and feed it a list of commands
sub zmprov {

        # start the zmprov process and capture its filehandles
        my $pid = open3(\*WRITE, \*READ, \*ERROR, $zmprov_cmd)
                or die "Couldn't open pipe to $zmprov_cmd: $!";

        # use IO::Select to poll zmprov's STDERR
        my $sel = IO::Select->new;

        # send every command we've been given to zmprov and watch for errors.
        foreach ( @_ ) {

                # report what we're doing as we do it, if we're being verbose
                print $_ if $VERBOSE;

                # send the command to zmprov
                print WRITE $_;

                # watch for a response on STDERR
                foreach my $h ( $sel->can_read ) {
                        my $buf='';
                        if ( $h eq \*ERROR ) {

                                # XXX: should we abort if we get an error?
                                warn "ERROR ( $_ ): $buf\n" if $buf;

        # no zombies

Remove Accounts

Here is a script that can be used to remove all accounts and distribution lists, save for accounts you specify. By default it leaves the admin account, the wiki account, and the ham and spam accounts.

# $Id: deprovision,v 1.2 2007/02/18 20:41:43 dlbewley Exp $
# Description:
#   Script to remove all Zimbra accounts and distribution lists.
#   This may be useful for getting back to square one if you are testing bulk 
#   provisioning during a migration.
# See Also:
#   http://wiki.zimbra.com/index.php?title=Bulk_Create
# Usage:
#    su - zimbra
#    ./deprovision > deprovision.zmp
#    zmprov < deprovision.zmp

# this will be passed to grep -vE which acts as an exclude list
# this will be passed to grep -vE which acts as an exclude list
# files to hold distlist and account lists


# get accounts lists
zmprov gaa > "$TMPA"
if [ -n "$KEEP_ACCOUNTS" ]; then
    grep -vE "$KEEP_ACCOUNTS" "$TMPA" > "$ACCOUNTS"
    rm "$TMPA"
    mv "$TMPA" "$ACCOUNTS"

# get distribution lists
zmprov gadl > "$TMPL"
if [ -n "$KEEP_LISTS" ]; then
    grep -vE "$KEEP_LISTS" "$TMPL" > "$LISTS"
    rm "$TMPL"
    mv "$TMPL" "$LISTS"

# remove accounts
cat "$ACCOUNTS" | while read account; do
    echo "da $account"

# remove lists
cat "$LISTS" | while read list; do
    echo "ddl $list"
Verified Against: Zimbra Collaboration 8.0, 7.0 Date Created: 4/3/2006
Article ID: http://wiki.zimbra.com/index.php?title=Bulk_Provisioning Date Modified: 07/11/2015

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