Preauth

Revision as of 19:56, 25 October 2007 by Brousch (talk | contribs) (Added program code for Windows Autologin program)

What is preauth?

Preauth stands for pre-authentication, and is a mechanism to enable a trusted third party to "vouch" for a user's identity. For example, if a user has already signed into a portal and wants to enter the mail application, they should not have to be prompted again for their password.

This can be accomplished by having the mail link they click on in the portal construct a special URL and redirect the user to the Zimbra server, which will then verify the data passed in the URL and create authentication token (the standard mechanism within Zimbra to identify users), save it in a cookie, and redirect the user to the mail app.

How does it work?

It works by having a key that is shared between the third party and Zimbra. Knowing this key, the third party specifies the desired username, a timestamp (to ensure the request is "fresh"), optionally an expiration time, and then computes a SHA-1 HMAC over that data using secret key.

The server computes the HMAC using the supplied data, and its key, to verify that it matches the HMAC sent in the request. If it does, the server will construct an auth token, save it in a cookie, and redirect the user to the mail application.

Preparing a domain for preauth

In order for preauth to be enabled for a domain, you need to run the zmprov command and create a key:

prov> gdpak domain.com 
preAuthKey: 4e2816f16c44fab20ecdee39fb850c3b0bb54d03f1d8e073aaea376a4f407f0c
prov>

Make note of that key value, as you'll need to use it to generate the computed-preauth values below. Also make sure you keep it secret, as it can be used to generate valid auth tokens for any user in the given domain!

Behind the scenes, this command is simply generating 32 random bytes, hex encoding them, then setting the "zimbraPreAuthKey" attr for the specified domain with the value of the key.

After generating the key, you'll probably need to restart the ZCS server so it picks up the updated value.

What are the interfaces?

There are two interfaces. One interface is URL-based, for ease of integration. The other interface is SOAP-based, for cases where the third party wants more control over generating the auth token and redirecting the user.

We'll describe the URL interface first, followed by the SOAP interface.

URL Interface

The URL interface uses the /service/reauth URL:

/service/preauth?

       account={account-identifier}
       by={by-value}
       timestamp={time}
       expires={expires}
       preauth={computed-preauth}

The values are as follows:

{account-identifier} depends on the value of the "by" attr. If "by" is not

                       specified, it is the name (i.e., john.doe@domain.com).

{by-value} name|id|foreignPrincipal, same as AuthRequest. defaults

                       to name.

{timestamp} current time, in milliseconds. The timestamp must

                       be within 5 minutes of the server's time for the 
                       preauth to work.

{expires} expiration time of the authtoken, in milliseconds.

                       set to 0 to use the default expiration time for the
                       account. Can be used to sync the auth token expiration
                       time with the external system's notion of expiration
                       (like a Kerberos TGT lifetime, for example).

{computed-preauth} the computed pre-auth value. See below for details.

The preauth value is computed as follows:

 1. concat the values for account, by, expires, timestamp together 
    (in that order, order is definitely important!), separated by "|"
 2. compute the HMAC on that value using the shared key
    (the zimbraPreAuthKey value for the account's domain, generating one
     is described below).
 3. convert the HMAC value into a hex string.

For example, given the following values:

key: 6b7ead4bd425836e8cf0079cd6c1a05acc127acd07c8ee4b61023e19250e929c

account: john.doe@domain.com by: name expires: 0 timestamp: 1135280708088

You would concat the account/by/expires/timestamp values together to get:

john.doe@domain.com|name|0|1135280708088

You would then compute the SHA-1 HMAC on that string, using the key:

preauth = hmac("john.doe@domain.com|name|0|1135280708088",

         "6b7ead4bd425836e8cf0079cd6c1a05acc127acd07c8ee4b61023e19250e929c");

finally, you would take the returned hmac (which is most likely an array of bytes), and convert it to a hex string:

preauth-value : b248f6cfd027edd45c5369f8490125204772f844

The resulting URL would be:

/service/preauth?account=john.doe@domain.com&expires=0\

   &timestamp=1135280708088&preauth=b248f6cfd027edd45c5369f8490125204772f844

Hitting that URL on the ZCS server will cause the preauth value to be verified, followed by a redirect to /zimbra/mail with the auth token in a cookie.

If a URL other then /zimbra/mail is desired, then you can also pass in a redirectURL:

...&redirectURL=/zimbra/h/

SOAP Interface

The SOAP interface uses the standard AuthRequest message, but instead of passing in a password, you specify <preauth> data.

For example:

<AuthRequest xmlns="urn:zimbraAccount">
<account by="name|id|foreignPrincipal">{account-identifier}</account>
<preauth timestamp="{timestamp}" expires="{expires}">{computed-preauth}</preauth>
</AuthRequest>

The values are exactly the same as they were for the URL case:

<AuthRequest xmlns="urn:zimbraAccount">
<account>john.doe@domain.com</account>
<preauth timestamp="1135280708088" expires="0}">b248f6cfd027edd45c5369f8490125204772f844</preauth>
</AuthRequest>

The auth token will be return in the AuthResponse. At which point, you can "inject" it into the app via the URL interface:

https://server/service/preauth?isredirect=1&authtoken={...}

Going to this URL will set the cookie and redirect to /zimbra/mail. If a URL other then /zimbra/mail is desired, then you can also pass in a redirectURL:

...&redirectURL=/zimbra/h/

Sample Java code for computing the preauth value

The following Java Code (1.5) will compute the pre-auth value.

import java.security.InvalidKeyException; import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException; import java.security.SecureRandom; import java.util.HashMap; import java.util.Map; import java.util.TreeSet; import javax.crypto.Mac; import javax.crypto.SecretKey;

public class test {

public static void main(String args[]) { 
    HashMap<String,String> params = new HashMap<String,String>();
    params.put("account", "john.doe@domain.com");
    params.put("by", "name"); // needs to be part of hmac
    params.put("timestamp", "1135280708088");
    params.put("expires", "0");
    String key = 
       "6b7ead4bd425836e8cf0079cd6c1a05acc127acd07c8ee4b61023e19250e929c";
    System.out.printf("preAuth: %s\n", computePreAuth(params, key)); 
 }
 public static  String computePreAuth(Map<String,String> params, String key) 
 {
       TreeSet<String> names = new TreeSet<String>(params.keySet());
       StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
       for (String name : names) {
           if (sb.length() > 0) sb.append('|');
           sb.append(params.get(name));
       }
       return getHmac(sb.toString(), key.getBytes());
   }
   private static String getHmac(String data, byte[] key) {
       try {
           ByteKey bk = new ByteKey(key);
           Mac mac = Mac.getInstance("HmacSHA1");
           mac.init(bk);
           return toHex(mac.doFinal(data.getBytes()));
       } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException e) {
           throw new RuntimeException("fatal error", e);
       } catch (InvalidKeyException e) {
           throw new RuntimeException("fatal error", e);
       }
   }
   
   static class ByteKey implements SecretKey {
       private byte[] mKey;
       
       ByteKey(byte[] key) {
           mKey = (byte[]) key.clone();;
       }
       
       public byte[] getEncoded() {
           return mKey;
       }
       public String getAlgorithm() {
           return "HmacSHA1";
       }
       public String getFormat() {
           return "RAW";
       }       
  }
   public static String toHex(byte[] data) {
       StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(data.length * 2);
       for (int i=0; i<data.length; i++ ) {
          sb.append(hex[(data[i] & 0xf0) >>> 4]);
          sb.append(hex[data[i] & 0x0f] );
       }

return sb.toString();

   }
   private static final char[] hex = 
      { '0' , '1' , '2' , '3' , '4' , '5' , '6' , '7' ,
        '8' , '9' , 'a' , 'b' , 'c' , 'd' , 'e' , 'f'};

}

You can also use zmprov while debugging to generate preAuth values for comparison:

prov> gdpa domain.com john.doe@domain.com name 1135280708088 0 account: john.doe@domain.com by: name timestamp: 1135280708088 expires: 0 preAuth: b248f6cfd027edd45c5369f8490125204772f844 prov>


Here is a sample JSP that does everything needed for preauth. It has a hardcoded username, which should of course be changed to match the username of the user you have "pre-authenticated".

File Edit Options Buffers Tools Help <%@ page import="java.security.InvalidKeyException" %> <%@ page import="java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException" %> <%@ page import="java.security.SecureRandom" %> <%@ page import="java.util.HashMap" %> <%@ page import="java.util.Map" %> <%@ page import="java.util.Iterator" %> <%@ page import="java.util.TreeSet" %> <%@ page import="javax.crypto.Mac" %> <%@ page import="javax.crypto.SecretKey" %> <%!

public static final String DOMAIN_KEY =
       "ee0e096155314d474c8a8ba0c941e9382bb107cc035c7a24838b79271e32d7b0";


public static String generateRedirect(HttpServletRequest request, String name) {
    HashMap params = new HashMap();
    String ts = System.currentTimeMillis()+"";
    params.put("account", name);
    params.put("by", "name"); // needs to be part of hmac
    params.put("timestamp", ts);
    params.put("expires", "0"); // means use the default
    String preAuth = computePreAuth(params, DOMAIN_KEY);
    return request.getScheme()+"://"+request.getServerName()+":"+request.getServerPort()+"/service/preauth/?" +
          "account="+name+
          "&by=name"+
          "&timestamp="+ts+
          "&expires=0"+
          "&preauth="+preAuth;
 }
   public static  String computePreAuth(Map params, String key) {
       TreeSet names = new TreeSet(params.keySet());
       StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();
       for (Iterator it=names.iterator(); it.hasNext();) {
           if (sb.length() > 0) sb.append('|');
           sb.append(params.get(it.next()));
       }
       return getHmac(sb.toString(), key.getBytes());
   }
   private static String getHmac(String data, byte[] key) {
       try {
           ByteKey bk = new ByteKey(key);
           Mac mac = Mac.getInstance("HmacSHA1");
           mac.init(bk);
           return toHex(mac.doFinal(data.getBytes()));
       } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException e) {
           throw new RuntimeException("fatal error", e);
       } catch (InvalidKeyException e) {
           throw new RuntimeException("fatal error", e);
       }
   }
   
   
   static class ByteKey implements SecretKey {
       private byte[] mKey;
       ByteKey(byte[] key) {
           mKey = (byte[]) key.clone();;
       }
       public byte[] getEncoded() {
           return mKey;
       }
       public String getAlgorithm() {
           return "HmacSHA1";
       }
       public String getFormat() {
           return "RAW";
       }
  }
   public static String toHex(byte[] data) {
       StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(data.length * 2);
       for (int i=0; i<data.length; i++ ) {
          sb.append(hex[(data[i] & 0xf0) >>> 4]);
          sb.append(hex[data[i] & 0x0f] );
       }
       return sb.toString();
   }
   private static final char[] hex =
      { '0' , '1' , '2' , '3' , '4' , '5' , '6' , '7' ,
        '8' , '9' , 'a' , 'b' , 'c' , 'd' , 'e' , 'f'};


%><%

String redirect = generateRedirect(request, "user1@slapshot.liquidsys.com"); response.sendRedirect(redirect);

%> <html> <head> <title>Pre-auth redirect</title> </head> <body>

You should never see this page.

</body> </html>


Java Program for Zimbra Autologin from Windows

The following program is based mainly on the sample Java code provided above. This program fetches the Windows login name and uses it to construct the preauth URL, open the default web browser, and autologin to the Zimbra server. The preauth key and server are hard-coded into the source, so you will need to set them before you compile. You should be aware that this program creates a potential security problem whereby UserA copies the compiled jar file, creates a Windows login account on a computer with UserB's login name, and runs the program under that account. UserA will be authenticated as UserB in this scenario.

/*
 * Main.java
 *
 * Created on October 25, 2007, 1:54 PM
 *
 * Some code originally from: http://wiki.zimbra.com/index.php?title=Preauth
 *
 * For this program to work, you must follow the directions for enabling preauth
 * on your server (available at the URL above). You must also set preAuthKey and
 * preAuthUrl in the main method below.
 *
 * By default, this program uses the Windows login name to set the Zimbra login
 * name. These names must match for this program to work.
 *
 * This method of determining username creates a security problem wherein a user
 * could copy the compiled jar and use it to login as any other user. To do so,
 * he has to create a Windows login account with the username of whomever he
 * wants to login as.
 */

package zimbrapreauthloader;

import java.security.InvalidKeyException;
import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;
import java.security.SecureRandom;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.TreeSet;
import javax.crypto.Mac;
import javax.crypto.SecretKey;

/**
 *
 */
public class Main {
    
    static String newline = System.getProperty("line.separator");
    
    /** Creates a new instance of Main */
    public Main() {
    }

    public static void main(String args[]) {
        String account = getAccount();   // Account name you are trying to login
        String by = "name";         // Specifies how account should be determined
        String timestamp = "";      // Current Unix date and time
        String expires = "0";       // Length of time in milliseconds to expire the auth
        String preAuthKey = "                                                                "; // Server-generated preauth key
        String preAuthValue = "";   // Calculated value for preauth
        String preAuthUrl = "https://mail.domain.com/service/preauth?";  // URL to use preauth
        String openBrowser = "rundll32 url.dll,FileProtocolHandler ";   // Command to open browser after OS is determined 
        
        // Generate timestamp
        Date date = new Date();
        timestamp = "" + date.getTime();
        
        // Assign values needed to calculate preauth
        HashMap<String,String> params = new HashMap<String,String>();
        params.put("account", account);
        params.put("by", by); // needs to be part of hmac
        params.put("timestamp", timestamp);
        params.put("expires", expires);
        
        // Compute preAuthValue
        preAuthValue = computePreAuth(params, preAuthKey);
        
        // Construct preAuthUrl
        preAuthUrl += constructUrl(account, expires, timestamp, preAuthValue);
        
        // Open Browser;
        try {
            Runtime.getRuntime().exec(openBrowser + preAuthUrl);
        }
        catch (IOException e) {
            System.out.println("Unable to open browser.");
            System.exit(1);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Constructs the URL needed to authorize
     *
     * Example url:
     * https://mail.domain.com/service/preauth?account=john.doe@domain.com&expires=0&timestamp=1135280708088&preauth=b248f6cfd027edd45c5369f8490125204772f844
     */
    public static String constructUrl(String useAccount, String useExpires, String useTimestamp, String usePreAuthValue) {
        String url = "";
        // Account part
        url += "account=" + useAccount + "&";
        // Expires part
        url += "expires=" + useExpires + "&";
        // Timestamp part
        url += "timestamp=" + useTimestamp + "&";
        // PreAuth part
        url += "preauth=" + usePreAuthValue;
        return url;
    }
    
    /**
     * Provides the account name to login as
     *
     * Retrieves the Windows login name and uses that as the Zimbra login name
     */
    private static String getAccount() {
        String username = System.getProperty("user.name");
        return username;
    }
    
    /**
     * Computes the preauth string
     */
    public static String computePreAuth(Map<String,String> params, String key) {
        TreeSet<String> names = new TreeSet<String>(params.keySet());
        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
        for (String name : names) {
            if (sb.length() > 0) {
                sb.append('|');
            }
            sb.append(params.get(name));
        }
        return getHmac(sb.toString(), key.getBytes());
    }

    /**
     * Computes the preAuth excryption key
     */
    private static String getHmac(String data, byte[] key) {
        try {
            ByteKey bk = new ByteKey(key);
            Mac mac = Mac.getInstance("HmacSHA1");
            mac.init(bk);
            return toHex(mac.doFinal(data.getBytes()));
        } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException("fatal error", e);
        } catch (InvalidKeyException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException("fatal error", e);
        }
    }
   
    static class ByteKey implements SecretKey {
        private byte[] mKey;
        
        ByteKey(byte[] key) {
            mKey = (byte[]) key.clone();
        }
        
        public byte[] getEncoded() {
            return mKey;
        }
        
        public String getAlgorithm() {
            return "HmacSHA1";
        }
        
        public String getFormat() {
            return "RAW";
        }       
    }

    public static String toHex(byte[] data) {
        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(data.length * 2);
        for (int i=0; i<data.length; i++ ) {
            sb.append(hex[(data[i] & 0xf0) >>> 4]);
            sb.append(hex[data[i] & 0x0f] );
        }
        return sb.toString();
    }

    private static final char[] hex = {'0','1','2','3','4','5','6','7','8','9','a','b','c','d','e','f'};
    
}

--Brousch 12:56, 25 October 2007 (PDT)


Verified Against: N/A Date Created: 8/24/2007
Article ID: https://wiki.zimbra.com/index.php?title=Preauth Date Modified: 2007-10-25



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